Monthly Archives: June, 2015

Phosphoric Acid Physical Properties

Pure phosphoric acid is a non-combustible, colourless, odourless and hygroscopic crystal. Commercial phosphoric acid comes as a viscous solution in water which contains 75-85% phosphoric acid. The liquid can solidify at lower temperatures.

Melting Point: 42°C (pure)

21°C (85%)

18°C (75%)

Boiling Point: 260°C (pure)

154°C (85%)

135°C (75%)

Specific Gravity: 1.88 (pure)

1.69 (85%)

1.58 (75%)

Vapour Density: 3.4 (pure)


What is Edaravone?

Edaravone (brand name Radicut) is a nootropic and neuroprotective abettor acclimated for the purpose of acceptable acoustic accretion afterward astute academician ischemia and consecutive bookish infarction. It acts as a almighty antioxidant and acerb scavenges chargeless radicals, attention adjoin oxidative accent and neuronal apoptosis. It has been marketed alone in Japan by Mitsubishi Pharma back 2001. and marketed in India by Edinburgh Pharmaceuticals by the cast name Arone

Edaravone has been apparent to abate methamphetamine- and 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the striatum and substantia nigra, and does not affect methamphetamine-induced dopamine absolution or hyperthermia. It has aswell been approved to assure adjoin MPTP-mediated dopaminergic neurotoxicity to the substantia nigra, admitting conspicuously not to the striatum.

Levetiracetam medical uses

Levetiracetam has been accustomed in the European Union as a monotherapy analysis for attack in the case of fractional seizures, or as an accessory analysis for partial, myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures. It is aswell acclimated in veterinary anesthetic for agnate purposes.

Levetiracetam has abeyant allowances for added psychiatric and neurologic altitude such as Tourette syndrome, autism, and all-overs disorder, as able-bodied as Alzheimer’s disease.However, its a lot of austere adverse furnishings are behavioral, and its benefit-risk arrangement in these altitude is not able-bodied understood.

Along with added anticonvulsants like gabapentin, it is aswell sometimes acclimated to amusement neuropathic pain. It has not been begin to be advantageous for capital tremors.

Fluvalinate effects on Aquatic Organisms

Fluvalinate is awful baneful to fish. The 96-hour LC50 for fluvalinate in bluegill sunfish is 0.09 ug/l, and in bubble trout is 2.9 ug/l. Its 48-hour LC50 in Daphnia magna, a baby freshwater crustacean, is 74 ug/l, and in mysid shrimp is 2.9 ug/l.

Pyrethroid insecticides are acutely baneful to angle with 96-hour LC50 ethics about beneath 10 ug/l. Corresponding LD50 ethics in mammals and birds are in the ambit of several hundred to several thousand mg/kg. Angle acuteness to the pyrethroids may be explained by their almost apathetic metabolism and abolishment of these compounds. The half-lives for abolishment of several pyrethroids by trout are all greater than 48 hours, while abolishment half-lives for birds and mammals ambit from 6 to 12 hours.

Generally, the accident of pyrethroids to angle increases with accretion octanol/water allotment coefficients.

Oleandrin mechanism of action

Because of its backdrop as a cardiac glycoside, oleandrin interferes in some capital processes aural the cell, the a lot of important of these getting the inhibition of the Na-K ATPase. This protein enables the corpuscle to barter the cations Na+ and K+ amid the intercellular and extracellular spaces by which, for instance, cyberbanking signaling is fabricated accessible in assumption cells. Oleandrin binds to specific amino acids in the protein, causing it to lose its function. After depolarization of the corpuscle in which Na+ flows into the cell, the Na+ cannot be transported aback into the extracellular membrane, causing the sodium acclivity to disappear. This acclivity is the active force for added carriage proteins, such as the sodium-calcium exchanger, which plays an important role in cardiomyocytes.

To accomplish beef abbreviating possible, a calcium arrival from the extracellular aqueous into the corpuscle is crucial. After the beef contraction, the calcium is commonly pumped out of the corpuscle and exchanged for sodium. When the sodium acclivity is depleted, calcium cannot be pumped aback and, as a consequence, accumulates in the cardiomyocyte.

As a aftereffect of the top calcium concentration, actin and myosin filaments will bind stronger, clumsy to relax appropriately to accomplish a new abbreviating possible. This may aftereffect in cardiac arrhythmias, in the affliction case abbreviating cardiac achievement and causing a curtailment in oxygen accumulation in basic tissues.

Apart from getting a almighty baneful compound, it may aswell be acclimated in ameliorative ways. Both oleandrin and oleandrigenin, as able-bodied as their relatives, may be able to arrest admeasurement of bump beef and activate their apoptosis as a aftereffect of the top absorption of intracellular calcium. In addition, it inhibits elimination of fibroblast advance agency 2 through film alternation and through inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase pump.However, there are no after-effects from analytic testing on bodies that abutment any use as a blight treatment.